Philipps-Universität Marburg - Institute for Co-operation in Developing Countries (ICDC)
About the Institute / Working Group
The Institute for Co-operation in Developing Countries belongs to the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and is part of Philipps-Universität Marburg, founded in 1527. It exists since 1963 and is headed by Prof. Dr. Michael Kirk. Around two senior fellows and 12 international doctoral students work at ICDC. It closely cooperates with the chairs of microeconomics, macroeconomics, and institutional/international economics at the same faculty.
Field of Expertise
The goal of the institute is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of formal and informal institutions and institutional change in the development process. A special focus lies on linkages between incentive structures emerging from property rights regimes, economic cooperation within hybrids (such as cooperatives or user associations) at different levels and poverty alleviation.
We have specialized in the micro-economics of land and resource tenure issues in Africa and Asia and related land/tenancy and water markets in developing countries (DC) and countries in transition; and we concentrate on resulting land and resource policies as well as the political economy of agrarian reforms in these regions. Here, we are in particular interested in the effects of such reforms on beneficiaries with regard to strengthening their livelihood basis, to reduce poverty and to contribute to sustainable production and resource use systems. Based on conceptual frameworks like IAD and Socio-Ecological Systems (SES) we analyze multi-layer governance structures between centrality, decentralization and poly-centricity with a focus on extensive rangeland systems, irrigation and rain-fed cropping as well as forestry.
Economic experiments and games (trust, common pool) help us to better understand the conditions for collective action in resource management of the commons and the business of small and medium enterprises, including farms and farmers, on cooperative self-help, collective action and self-help organizations in emerging civil societies.
Combining these two major components and up-scaling them helps to identify incentive structures for the economics of global commons and international regimes with a particular focus on the preservation of biodiversity, combating desertification and coping with climate change in impoverished rural areas. Having a strong tradition in research on co-operatives and their apex organisations in developing and newly emerging economies we work in a complementary way on enabling conditions for business start-ups in the legal form of cooperative enterprises, diversity management in international regimes and organisations and deregulation of markets (such as telecommunication or extension in DCs) and the role of the private sector.
1. Micro-level research on economic co-operation and co-management in Namibia and South Africa (BIOTA III, E 4, funded by BMBF):
- biodiversity-focused co-operation options in conservancies in Southern Namibia,
- impact of payment mechanisms in water point associations in the same region
- efficiency of rules and the impact of ecological and cultural frame conditions on local level cooperation in NRM.
Based on household surveys, economic experiments, expert interviews and other qualitative methods, we analyze income generation issues, employment options, the generation of institutional incentives to protect biodiversity, payment morale, the mis-/use of social/material sanctions, resulting un-cooperative behaviour, the role of risk attitudes and communication for NRM and of external interventions from government and civil society.
2. Integrating innovation, policy interventions and stakeholders into governance patterns for biodiversity conservation (BIOTA II, F1, funded by BMBF):
- Impact of instruments of Namibian Land Reform Policy Program on biodiversity conservation,
- economic performance of reform beneficiaries,
- communicating policy results to stakeholders,
- political economy of embedding biodiversity issues into broader policy formulation,
- impacts of water reforms in Namibia on a local level and
- resulting multi-level governance for biodiversity protection.
Guided by qualitative policy analysis, household surveys, economic experiments, stakeholder analysis and other qualitative methods, we identify high transaction costs for registering communal land titles, resulting local resistance, low economic viability of beneficiary farms, a lack of technology and tenure security, but on the other hand positive incentives in the case of water reforms and in communicating research results into a policy arena.
3. Selected ongoing projects
- Micro-level analysis of economic performance of smallholder beneficiaries of land reforms and their impact on rural poverty alleviation (Cambodia, Namibia) (BMZ/GTZ)
- Large scale investments in agricultural lands (‘land grabbing’), modelling contract design between investors and local land user communities and their impact on poverty and equity issues (Ghana, Namibia, and world wide) (BMZ/GTZ)
- Identifying and analyzing new issues on desertification: research trends and research needs at the interface to policy advise and implementation (world wide) (BMBF)
- Property rights, collective action and poverty alleviation: Conceptual framework development and case studies in Cambodia and selected African countries (BMZ)
- Socio-Economics of Cotton Production in Benin and Burkina Faso: impact of conventional versus organic cotton on biodiversity preservation and rural livelihoods (BMBF)
- Policy advisory projects in the field of land policy, land administration and land management in Namibia, Cambodia, Laos, Zimbabwe, etc. (World Bank, GTZ)
Research Proposals for SASSCAL
1. Land/agrarian reform and innovative farming systems: land and agrarian reforms have manifold political and economic objectives. A wide range of policy instruments is applied, such as customary land right registration, individual and group resettlement programs, affirmative action, or technology and support service delivery. With a cross-country analysis (e.g. Namibia, Zambia, South Africa) based on secondary data analysis, household surveys, field experiments and other qualitative tools, we assess not only the political economy of reform programs but as well as individual incentive structures, farm performance and impact on agriculture and the rural poor.
2. Currently various decentralization policies are implemented in Southern Africa in order to increase the efficiency of rural water supply and to empower (often poor) water users. Most of them have in common a transfer of management and use rights to the individual water user household as well as principles of cost recovery. Working with quantitative and qualitative data sets, we analyse and compare how the reforms affect incentives for sustainable water and water infrastructure management as well as effects on inequality and poverty.
Capacity Development Portfolio of the Working Group
- Post-Graduate education and training: Long-term, intensive experiences in a wide range of education and training activities on the following subjects: Land tenure and land management (Technical University Munich, InWent), International Development Studies (Marburg University), Economic Change in the Arab Region (Marburg/Damascus University) Cooperation in Forest Management (Technical University Dresden), Land Management (University of the Visayas, The Philippines and Royal University of Agriculture, Cambodia).
- International summer schools of alumni networks within a consortium of the universities of Göttingen, Kassel and Marburg together with South Asian Universities (Bogor, Indonesia; Chiang Mai, Thailand, University of Cambodia, University of the Philippines, Hanoi University, Vietnam), on Sustainable Natural Resource Management. International summer schools with Latin American partners on the economics of natural resource management and sustainable development (University of Talca, Chile, University of Monterrey, Mexico, University of Recife, Brazil, Catholic University of Lima, Peru).
- International cooperation programs on training and research with Polytech of Namibia, UNAM, Namibia, University of the Western Cape, South Africa, Stellenbosch University, South Africa, Makarere University, Uganda. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC., International Center for Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia; The World Bank, Research Division; African Development Bank (AfDB), Research Division; FAO, Division on Land and Water; Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis (Prof. Elinor Ostrom), Indiana University, Bloomington/USA; International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies, Bari, Italy; Institute of Resource Economics, Humboldt-University Berlin,
- Training workshops and programs for policy makers and development cooperation specialists on land and resource tenure, agrarian reform and land policies at KfW, GTZ, InWent, DED, Brot für die Welt, German Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), European Commission, General Directorate of Development, Ministry of Lands, Kingdom of Cambodia.
- Grass-root capacity development: training modules with land users in Southern Namibia (Keetmannshoop), training units for national NGOs, such as Brot für die Welt, German Agro Food Action, International Land Coalition, Rome.
Services offered for SASSCAL
With its strong experiences in basic and applied research, often at the interface to policy implementation and advice, ICDC will offer a broad bundle of services: applicable results from micro-level empirical field research as well as from macro level policy analysis; socio-ecological system analysis and its policy implications based on the SES framework, policy information and discourse processes based on its experiences in policy advice for Deutscher Bundestag (German Parliament), The World Bank, GTZ, KfW, FAO, InWent, several national Ministries, NGOs and private enterprises. On parallel terms, ICDC can strongly contribute to the further development of all kinds of tertiary education modules, based on its rich experiences in developing Master in PhD programs in different parts of the world.
At the same time, ICDC is strongly cooperating with start-up of small and medium enterprises, mainly organized as cooperatives and has a comparative advantage in supporting small producers in rural areas in improving market access, marketing, ensuring quality standards and internationalization. The same competencies work in organizational development by supporting NGOs and other civil society organizations in their conceptual and implanting work (such as organizations securing land rights, encouraging the lobbying of disadvantaged groups).
Publications / References
Selected peer-reviewed publications
Bock, B. & M. Kirk (2006), Rural water pricing systems in Namibia: effects on water use and livelihoods, Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 45, 339-360.
di Gregorio, Monica; Hagedorn, Konrad; Kirk, Michael; Korf, Benedikt; McCarthy, Nancy; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth & Brent Swallow (2008): Property Rights, Collective Action, and Poverty. The Role of Institutions for Poverty Reduction CAPRi Working Paper No. 81, Washington D.C.
Falk, T. Bock, B. & M. Kirk (2009): Polycentrism and poverty: Experiences of rural water supply reform in Namibia. Water Alternatives 2(1): 115-137.
Hinz, M O; Ruppel, O C (2008a) eds., Biodiversity and the ancestors. Challenges to customary and environmental law. Case studies from Namibia. Windhoek: Namibia Scientific Society 478-487.
Michael Kirk, Nguyen Do Anh Tuan (2009), Land-Tenure Policy Reforms, Decollectivization and the Doi Moi System in Vietnam, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00927, Washington. D.C.
Vollan (2008a): Socio-ecological explanations for crowding-out effects from economic field experiments in southern Africa. Ecological Economics 67(4): 560-573.
Prediger, S.; Vollan, B.; Frölich, M. (in review): The impact of ecology and culture on cooperation: evidence from a common-pool resource experiment. submitted to Ecological Economics
Weingart, Anne & Michael Kirk (2008), Escaping Poverty Traps? Collective Action and Property Rights in Post-War Rural Cambodia, CAPRi Working Paper No. 89, Washington, D.C
Contributions in books
Falk, T., Schmiedel, U., Zimmermann, I., Joubert, D., Proepper, M., Gruber, M., Koelle, B., Domptail, S., Kohrs, B., Oettle, N. (in print): BIOTA's strategies for stakeholder interaction and capacity development. In: Jürgens, N. et al. (Eds.): Biodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 2: Patterns and processes at regional scale. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek
Falk, T., Kruger, B., Lohmann, D., Kamukuenjandje, R., Zimmermann, I., Kirk, M., Hindjou, J., Kambuli, R., Sheehama, P., Koop, L., Heil, N., Lebershausen, L., Neu, D., Frank, A. (in print): Economic and ecological indicators of land reform projects in eastern Namibia. In: Jürgens, N. et al. (Eds.): Biodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 2: Patterns and processes at regional scale. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek
Falk (2008a): Communal Farmers' Natural Resource Use and Biodiversity Preservation - A New Institutional Economic Analysis from Case Studies in Namibia and South Africa. Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen.
Hinz, M O; Ruppel,O C (2008b): Legal protection of biodiversity in Namibia. In Hinz, Ruppel (2008a):3-62
Hinz, M O (2008): Findings and the way forward. In Hinz, Ruppel (2008a):211-225
Kirk, M. (2009), Renaissance von (genossenschaftlicher) Kooperation im ländlichen Raum in Entwicklungsländern? Antworten der Experimentellen Ökonomik unter Struktur- und Klimawandel, in: Schöpflin, M. et al. (Hg), Von der Sache zum Recht, München, S. 337-348
Mapaure, C (2008): Fishing among the Topnaar. In Hinz, Ruppel (2008a):151-174
Muhonge, M (2008): Forest conservation and the role of traditional leaders. A case study of the Bukalo community forest. In Hinz, Ruppel (2008a):197-208
Prediger, S., Kirk, M. (2010): Potentials and limitations of communal conservancies in southern Namibia. (forthcoming in Jürgens, N. et al. (Eds.): Biodiversity in southern Africa. Implications for land use and management. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek)
Prediger, S., Pröpper, M. (2010): Understanding norms and propensities for cooperation and collective action: economic experiments within BIOTA (forthcoming in Jürgens, N. et al. (Eds.): Biodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 2: Patterns and processes at regional scale. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek)
Vollan, B. (2008b): The role of deliberation and voting in an economic field experiment in rural communities of southern Namibia and northern South Africa. Deliberative Ecological Economics, Editors: Howarth, R. and Zografos, C., Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Vollan, B. (2009a): Co-operation for common pool resources : an experimental perspective. München: Verlag Dr. Hut.
Vollan, B. (2009b): Determinants and measurement of trust: Experiments and survey questions on trust in southern Africa. Beiträge der genossenschaftlichen Selbsthilfe zur wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Entwicklung, Editors: Rösner, Hans Jürgen and Schulz-Nieswandt, Frank; Lit Verlag, Berlin.
Further peer-reviewed publications
Falk, T., Bock, B. (2008a), Rural Water Supply Reform - Success Story and Poverty Trap, Namibian, 28.11.2008.
Falk, T.; Bock, B. (2008b): Rural Water Supply in Namibia: Effects on Natural Resource Management and Livelihoods. - Spotlight on Agriculture 108; Ministry of Agriculture, Water, and Forestry, Windhoek.
Falk, T. (2008b). Biodiversity and the ancestors: Challenges to customary and environmental law. Book review. Namibian Law Journal Vol.1(1): 113-116.
Graefen, C. & M. Kirk (2005), Access to Land: A Human Right? agriculture + rural development, 12, 17-19.
Graefen, C. & M. Kirk (2005), Laccès à la terre - un droit humain? agriculture & développement rural, 12, 17-19.
Hinz, M O; Mapaure, C; Namwoonde, E N; Anyolo, P N (2010): The protection of natural resources and the biodiversity. Work in progress in three Master's theses in the Faculty of Law of the University of Namibia. In Namibia Law Journal (2.2):103-110
Kirk, M. (2008), Resettlement farmers, other land reform beneficiaries and organizations for economic co-operation, in particular, cooperatives, GTZ Report, Windhoek, Marburg (mimeo).
Prediger, S., Vollan, B., Herrmann, B. (2010a): Resource scarcity, spite and cooperation. (in preparation, will be submitted to Science Brevia latest by the end of July 2010)
Vollan, B. (2007): What reciprocity? The impact of culture and socio-political background on trust games in Namibia and South Africa. Ostrom, Schlüter (eds.) The Challenge of Self-Governance in Complex, Globalizing Economies, revised papers of the PhD school in Freiburg April 2007; IFE Working Paper 47a.
Vollan (2008c): Kinship and friendship in a trust game with third party punishment. Joint
Discussion Paper Series in Economics 09-2008. http://www.uni-marburg.de/fb02/makro/forschung/magkspapers/09-2008_vollan.pdf
Vollan, B., Prediger, S., Frölich, M. (2009): The influence of collective property rights on grazing management in a semi-arid region. CEGA Working Paper Series No. AfD-0913. Center of Evaluation for Global Action. University of California, Berkeley. (submitted to the African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics)
Vollan, B., Prediger, S., Frölich, M. (2010): An experimental analysis of rules for cooperative grazing management in a semi-arid region. (in preparation, will be submitted to World Development by the end of May 2010)
Bock, B., Falk, T., Kirk, M. (2008a): Rural water supply in Namibia: effects on natural resource management and livelihoods; XII World Congress on Rural Sociology 07-2008. Goyang, South Korea.
Bock, B., Falk, T., Kirk, M. (2008b): Rural water supply in Namibia - effects on natural resource management and livelihoods. Poster presented at the International Congress Biodiversity of Africa - Observation and Sustainable Management for our Future! Analysis. 29. September - 3. October. Spier, Republic of South Africa.
Domptail S., Kirk, M., Nuppenau, E.-A., Popp A., Prediger, S., Pröpper, M., Vollan, B. (2008): Managing Rangelands under Uncertainties - Applying Bio-Economic Models and Trust Games for Rangeland Management and Conservation under Uncertainty. Presentation at the International congress 'Biodiversity of Africa - Observation and Sustainable Management for our Future!'. 29.9.-3.10.2008, Spier (South Africa).
Falk, T., Bock, B., Kirk, M. (2008a). Rural water supply reform in Namibia - chances and risks. Presentation for stakeholders on the national level at the Polytechnic of Namibia, 05.03.2008
Falk, T., Bock, B., Kirk, M. (2008b). Rural water supply reform in Namibia: Affects on natural resource management and livelihoods. Presentation for stakeholders on the national level at the Namibian Scientific Society, 02.12.2008
Falk, T., Domptail, S.. Dreber, N., Groenewaldt, A., Hinz, M., Kirk, M., Mapaure, C., Namwoonde, E., Nuppenau, E.A., Petersen, A., Proepper, M., Tjipitua, N., Vollan, B. (2008c) Institutions and Policies for Better Management of Natural Resources in Namibia. Presentation at the International congress 'Biodiversity of Africa - Observation and Sustainable Management for our Future!'. 29.9.-3.10.2008, Spier (South Africa).
Falk, T., Gröngröft, A., Eschenbach A., Fox, T., Hinz, M., Kangombe, F., Keil, M., Namwoonde, E., Petersen, A., Pröpper, M., Strohbach, B., Wisch, U. (2008d). Deforestation and biodiversity-loss due to cultivation? An interdisciplinary analysis in North-East Namibia. Presentation at the International congress 'Biodiversity of Africa - Observation and Sustainable Management for our Future!'. 29.9.-3.10.2008, Spier (South Africa).
Falk, T., Gröngröft, A., Herpel, N., Kunz, N., Linke, T., Petersen, A., Schmiedel, U., Vollan, B., Weber, B., Zedda, L. (2008e): Patterns of biodiversity and land use impact in Soebatsfontein, a biodiversity hotspot in South Africa. Poster presented at the International Congress Biodiversity of Africa - Observation and Sustainable Management for our Future! Analysis. 29. September - 3. October. Spier, Republic of South Africa.
Falk, T., Vollan, B., Kirk, M. (2008f): Regulations of natural resource use and its enforcement. Presentation at the BIOTA local and regional stakeholder workshop in Keetmanshoop 03.03.2008.
Falk, T. (2008g). The institutions regulating natural resource management on the Soebatsfontein commonage. Presentation at the stakeholder workshop in Soebatsfontein. 06.12.2008.
Falk, T., Vollan, B.,Kirk, M. (2009b). Theoretical, institutional and experimental analysis of enforcement problems in natural resource management - a case study from southern Namibia. Paper presented at the policy forum: Scaling up conservation practices for natural resource commons in Africa. International Association for the Study of Commons. Cape Town, South Africa.
Falk, T., Lohmann, D., Kirk, M., Jeltsch, F. (2009c): Cooperation in water supply management in small groups - Participatory assessments with bio-economic models. Paper presented at the 8th session of the European School on New Institutional Economics. Cargese, France
Falk, T., Jürgens, N., Bock, B., Gruber, M., Hinz, M.O., Jeltsch, F., Joubert, D., Kirk, M., Kruger, B., Mapaure, C., Namwoonde, N., Proepper, M., Schmiedel, U., Zimmermann, I. (2009d): Lessons learnt, best practices, and perspectives of knowledge generation and dissemination in the BIOTA project. Paper presented at the SADC Conference on Sustainable Land Management Practices in the Dry-lands of Southern Africa. 7th -11th September
Falk, T., Vollan, B., Kirk, M. (2010a): Analysis of material, social, and moral enforcement in natural resource management in southern Namibia. Paper accepted to be presented at the 14th Annual Conference of The International Society for New Institutional Economics (ISNIE) at the University of Stirling, Scotland, UK, June 17 - 19, 2010
Falk, T., Zimmermann, I., Lohmann, D. (2010b): Rangeland condition as precondition and outcome of land reform policy in Namibia. Paper submitted to the IX International Rangeland Congress. Rosario, Argentina
Kirk, Michael (2008), Resettlement farmers, other land reform beneficiaries and organizations for economic co-operation, in particular, cooperatives, GTZ Report, Windhoek, Marburg (mimeo).
Kirk, M. (2010), Multi-layer governance in biodiversity preservation in Southern Africa: A Socio-Ecological System perspective. Paper presented at the 13th Economics of Infrastructures Conference at Technical University of Delft, May 26-27, 2010.
Kirk, M., Prediger, S., Falk, T., Vollan, B. (2010): Resource tenure reforms, preferences and enforcement mechanisms: Evidence on user cooperation in Namibia. Paper presented at the annual World Bank conference "Land policy and administration", Washington D.C., 26-27 April, 2010.
Lohmann, D.; Falk, T.; Rossmanith, E.; Blaum, N.; Kirk, M.; Jeltsch, F. (2009a): Application of an ecological-economic rangeland management model for interactive role-plays, scientific analyses and training purposes. Presentation at the13th Namibian Rangeland Forum: The role of biodiversity in rangeland management and policy, Windhoek 27-29 October 2009.
Lohmann, D.; Falk, T.; Rossmanith, E.; Blaum, N.; Kirk, M.; Jeltsch, F. (2009b): Launch of the Ecol-Econ Savannah Rangeland Training Support Tool. Presentation at the BIOTA Sustaining our Savannas Open Day at Polytechnic of Namibia. 06.11.2009
Lohmann, D.; Falk, T.; Rossmanith, E.; Tietjen, B.; Kirk, M.; Jeltsch, F. (2009c): How do land reform beneficiaries decide on resource use? Empirical experiments based on an ecological-economic modelling approach. Paper presented at the DIVERSITAS Open Science Conference 2, 13 - 16 October 2009, CAPE TOWN, Book of abstracts: 141
Namwoonde, N E (2009): Benefits for African post-graduate students during the past ten years of the BIOTA project, Presentation at Expert Discussion on "Scientific cooperation with developing countries and emerging economies". Organized by the Parliamentary Group of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany and the Christian Social Union of Bavaria. Berlin 18 March 2009.
Namwoonde, E., Falk, T., Fox, T., Gröngröft, A., Hinz, M., Kangombe, F., Keil, M., Namwoonde, E., Petersen, A., Pröpper, M., Strohbach, B., Wisch, U. (2009). Deforestation and biodiversity-loss due to cultivation? An interdisciplinary analysis in North-East Namibia. Presentation at the policy forum: Scaling up conservation practices for natural resource commons in Africa. International Association for the Study of Commons. 20-22 January, Cape Town, South Africa.
Prediger, S., Vollan, B., Frölich, M. (2009a): Impact of rules and resource dynamics on grazing management in semi-arid areas: An experimental approach. Presentation at the policy forum: Scaling up conservation practices for natural resource commons in Africa. International Association for the Study of Commons. 20-22 January, Cape Town, South Africa.
Prediger, S., Vollan, B., Frölich, M. (2009b): An experimental analysis of adequate rules for cooperative grazing management in a semi-arid region. Advanced workshop in Experimental Economics, 20-24 July, Sydney, Australia.
Prediger, S., Vollan, B., Frölich, M. (2009c): Cooperation in the commons: evidence from a cross-cultural field experiment on common-pool resource management. Paper presented at the Namibian Rangeland Forum 2009.
Prediger, S., Vollan, B., Herrmann, B. (2010c): Resource scarcity and nastiness. MAGKS Doktorandenkolloquium, 19th March, Marburg, Germany.
Pröpper, M.; Falk, T.; Hinz M.; Mapaure, C.; Mukuya, R.S. (2008): Forest Management in North-East Namibia: An Interdisciplinary Analysis. Poster presented at the International Congress Biodiversity of Africa - Observation and Sustainable Management for our Future! Analysis. 29. September - 3. October. Spier, Republic of South Africa.
Pröpper M., Namwoonde, E., Falk, T., Hinz, M., Kirk, M. (2008b): How to control the expansion of cultivated fields impacting on biodiversity? Rethinking 'tenure' and 'ownership' - a case study from the Kavango region/Namibia. Poster presented at the International Congress Biodiversity of Africa - Observation and Sustainable Management for our Future! Analysis. 29. September - 3. October. Spier, Republic of South Africa.
Pröpper, M., Falk, T., Mapaure, C., Hinz, M., Kirk. M. (2009). New consumer markets, culture and polycentric adjustment processes in Kavango forest management. Poster presented at the Tropentag 2009. Book of Abstracts: International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development; Biophysical and socio-economic frame conditions for the sustainable management of natural resources: p 312.
Pröpper, M., Namwoonde, E., Falk, T., Hinz, M., Kirk, M. (2009). How to control the expansion of cultivated fields impacting on biodiversity? Rethinking 'tenure' and 'ownership' - a case study from the Kavango region/Namibia. Poster presented at the DIVERSITAS Open Science Conference 2, 13 - 16 October 2009, CAPE TOWN
Vollan, B. (2007): Institutions to govern the commons: Evidence from economic field experiments in southern Africa. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference of European Society for Ecological Economics, Leipzig, Germany, 5-8 June 2007.
Vollan, B., Prediger, S., Kirk, M. (2008) Game theory, trust and institutions for rangeland management. Presentation at the BIOTA stakeholder workshop in Keetmanshoop 03.03.2008.
Anyolo, P (2010): Namibia's communal conservancies. To alleviate or advance poverty? LLM thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Namibia.
Duarte, M.M. (2009): Genetic differentiation of small rodents in fragmented landscapes of South Africa. Bachelor thesis. Philipps University Marburg, Faculty of Biology, Animal Ecology.
Frank, A., Heil, N., Koop, L., Lebershausen, L., Neu, D. (2009): Land Reform in Namibia: An empirical analysis of the economic and ecological performance of land reform beneficiaries in the Omaheke Region. Group research thesis in the frame of the Master course on International Development studies. University of Marburg. Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.
Glatzle, M. (2009): Habitat structure and small rodent diversity in the Renosterveld of South Africa, Bachelor thesis. Philipps University Marburg, Faculty of Biology, Animal Ecology.
Koop, L.B. (2010): Exploratory analyses of factors determining business performance of land reform beneficiaries in Namibia. Master thesis in International Development Studies. University of Marburg. Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.
Mapaure, C (2008): Biodiversity at the crossroads. Internal conflicts of laws in the conservation of forests in the Kavango, Namibia LL B thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Namibia
Mapaure, C (2010): "Water wars". Legal pluralism and hydropolitics in Namibian water law. LLM thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Namibia
Namwoonde, N E (2008): A rejected import. Registration of customary land rights in Kavango. LLB thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Namibia
Nasmwoonde, N E (2010): Impacts of biofuels (Jatropha Curcas) production on communal land in North-East Namibia. LLM thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Namibia
Ndlovu, A (2009): Traditional knowledge as a conservation tool in the protection of wild animals in the Kavango region. LLB thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Namibia
Nghisitenda, K (2009): The customary law on the protection and conservation of the Hoodia plant in the San community. LLB thesis, Faculty of Law, University of Namibia
Prediger, S. (2007): How to evaluate biodiversity economically? Approaches of cost-benefit analysis in Namibia. Diploma Thesis, University of Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.